General Animation Resources

Note: These recommended Web sites have been checked for availability and for advertising and other inappropriate content. Because Web sites' policies and content change frequently, however, we suggest that you preview the sites shortly before using them.

The following books and Web sites contain in-depth information about the process of animation. You may also wish to look at books that cover animating with the software your class is using (these are not included here because software programs change so frequently).


Blair, P. (1994). Cartoon animation. Irvine, CA: Walter Foster. Camara, S. (2006). All about techniques in drawing for animation production. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series.

Hooks, E. (2003). Acting for animators (Rev. ed.): A complete guide to performance animation. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Drama.

Romanelli, D. (2005). Draw the Looney Tunes. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. Thomas, F., &

Johnston, O. (1981). The illusion of life. New York: Disney Editions. Whitaker, H., & Halas, J. (2002). Timing for animation. Oxford: Focal Press.

White, T. (2009). How to make animated films. Oxford: Focal Press.

Williams, R. (2009). The animator’s survival kit: Expanded edition. London: Faber and Faber.

Web Sites

Academy of Art Animation Notes [Includes links to sources for hand-drawn animation equipment]

Animation Mentor

The Eleven Second Club [Hosts of a monthly animation competition]

Idleworm animation tutorials

Larry’s Toon Instititue animation software tutorials

Glossaries Glossary of 3D Terms.

Skillset. Animation Glossary.

Overview of the Animation Process DreamWorks. Go to “Company,” then click “Production Process.” Pixar.

How We Make a Movie: Pixar’s Animation Process.

Skillset. Putting It Together: How Animation Gets Made.

Stop-Motion Photography and Slow-Motion Video

The following resources can be used to show students how objects in the real world move, squash, and stretch.

Kayafas, G., & Jussim, E. (2000). Stopping time: The photographs of Harold Edgerton. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Muybridge, E. (1985). Horses and other animals in motion: 45 classic photographic sequences. New York: Dover Publications.

YouTube Searching for “High FPS” brings up video clips shot at a very high frame rate and played in slow motion.